Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education is a series of pieces exploring how large concentrated populations of ethnic minorities in the United States create alternative music ecosystems. The series will look at different historical music ecosystems either adapted to by creating a hybridized music identity or assimilated into the dominant Eurocentric music ecosystem.
The underlying theme should be the understanding that the dominant music ecosystem, as it’s primarily practiced through education and programming, is simply one ethnic music ecosystem that’s favored over many others that historically existed. These ethnic music ecosystems currently have limited power except in the case where large concentrations of ethnic minorities live.
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 1): Intro
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 2): Postcolonialism
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 3): Assimilation
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 4): Immigration
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 5): Neocolonialism
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 6): Industrialization
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 7): Commercialization
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 8): Exclusion
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 9): Colonialism
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 10): Hybridization
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 11): Decolonialism
- Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education (part 12): Conclusion
Supplementary Pieces/Case Studies
- Classical Music and its Slave Orchestras
- Colonialism, White Supremacy, and the Logic of Exclusion of Colored Bodies in Classical Music
- School music programs should be teaching Mohammed Abdel Wahab rather than Ludwig van Beethoven
- Supporting whose arts anyway?
- Are music schools serving the needs of its students?
- Made in Thailand: Composed in America
Select Bibliography of US Music Ed History
Belz, M. (2006). Opening the Doors to Diverse Traditions of Music Making: Multicultural Music Education at the University Level. Music Educators Journal,92(5), 42-45. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3878501
Bond, V. (2017). Culturally Responsive Education in Music Education: A Literature Review. Contributions to Music Education,42, 153-180. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26367441
Heller, G. (1983). Retrospective of Multicultural Music Education in the United States. Music Educators Journal,69(9), 35-36. doi:10.2307/3396265
Mark, M. (1998). Multicultural Music Education in the United States. The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education,19(3), 177-186. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40214966
Palmer, A. (1997). Multicultural Music Education: Antipodes and Complementarities. Philosophy of Music Education Review,5(2), 92-100. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40495430
Volk, T. (1993). The History and Development of Multicultural Music Education as Evidenced in the “Music Educators Journal,” 1967-1992. Journal of Research in Music Education,41(2), 137-155. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3345404
Volk, T. (1994). Folk Musics and Increasing Diversity in American Music Education: 1900-1916. Journal of Research in Music Education,42(4), 285-305. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3345737
Volk, T. (2003). Looking Back in Time: On Being a Music Education Historian. Journal of Historical Research in Music Education,25(1), 49-59. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40215277
Synopses of Parts
Part one: IntroIntroduction to the series and gives two examples of music education ecosystems (Chinese Music and Mariachi Music) which don’t rely on a Eurocentric model or canon. This piece introduces the field of Postcolonialist criticism.
Part two: PostcolonialismThis piece looks at the how Arab American communities have slowly built up their own music ecosystems and how education initiatives are diffused and disseminated across communities throughout the U.S. It ends with examples of how a Postcolonial critique can be used to unpack how we talk about music ecosystems.
Part three: AssimilationPart three discusses how the U.S. has used forced assimilation, including a Eurocentric music ecosystem model, on Indigenous populations and how that legacy has been incorporated into contemporary music ecosystems even in music education. This will be contrasted with a discussion of other music ecosystems formed in immigrant communities that are happening concurrently with the forced assimilation model.
Part four: ImmigrationPart four focuses on the “Third Wave” of Immigration in the United States and how the music of these new ethnic groups assimilated into the broader USian culture or remained a relatively isolated cultural practice intracommunally. In preserving aspects of the cultures of their homelands, these Croatian Americans and Italian Americans from the Third Wave had many strategies in common but also significant differences. While historical chance led the Estudiantina Española Fígaro to make a splash in the U.S. which helped propel Italian American Mandolin Orchestras into prominence, the Croatian Americans had no such luck.
Part five: NeocolonialismPart five will look at how neocolonialism shaped U.S. cultural practices in music and music education into a Eurocentric model during the same period as the forced assimilation of indigenous peoples. By focusing on the Women Music Clubs and orchestras formed by Women, who were excluded from White Men orchestras, we’ll see that a Eurocentric model of music and music education became central and widely pushed by mostly white women during the heyday of the Women Music Clubs.
Part six: IndustrializationPart six will look at the history Colonialism through the lens of slave orchestras in the Southern US as well as worldwide, as well as the history of Anti-Blackness in the US Classical Music Ecosystem during its formative years. Orchestras by free African Americans have existed simultaneously with the Southern slave orchestras until the Civil War. Post war Black orchestras flourished alongside the Women orchestras and other Black musical genres during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Part six: CommercializationPart seven will look at how the music instrument manufacturing industries and sheet music industry helped to shape American music. Part four already took a look at how guitar manufacturers built on U.S. audiences desire for exotic instruments during the mandolin phase, but this piece will briefly look at the decline of popular concert band period which forced instrument makers to create a new consumer for its instruments and how that shaped the music education movement.
Part eight: ExclusionPart seven will look at the exclusion era and how the Chinese Exclusion Act further isolated Chinese American communities and kept their Cantonese Opera an intracommunal practice in many of the same ways that the Croatian American Tamburitzans were being practiced. At the same time, touring Chinese Opera troupes from mainland China were finding success with American audiences in ways that Chinese American Opera troupes were not.
Part nine: ColonialismPart nine will look at the Colonialist history of the United States which led to the acquisition and annexation of several Island nations and regions in the Pacific and Caribbean. The music and cultures from these regions have so long been appropriated into U.S. culture that it’s easy to forget that incorporation was a indirectly a result of colonial conquest and earlier contact through immigrant communities from those regions.
Part ten: HybridizationPart ten will look at how all of the historical examples of music ecosystems navigated hybrid identities as either an extension of Eurocentric musics or as relatively self-contained music ecosystems which remain till today. This piece will also look at more recent immigrant populations and their musical practices and ecosystems such as the Burmese Chin of Indianapolis have maintained contact within broader Chin diasporic music ecosystems worldwide.
Part eleven: DecolonialismPart eleven will take a look at Decolonization as a practice used to dismantle Colonial institutions and the ambiguous ways in which it can be selectively used which may actually reinforce Colonialistic practices. This piece will also briefly take a look at how institutions in current U.S. music ecosystems have resisted Decolonization and reinforce Colonial practices.
Part twelve: ConclusionThe conclusion of the series will summarize the different ways immigrant groups navigates creating their music ecosystem identities and how these contested, assimilated, and created hybrid systems with the larger Eurocentric music ecosystem. It should be emphasized that the Eurocentric music ecosystem is itself an ethnic identity and only by placing it as one ethnic music ecosystem amongst many will we be able to move past its being central and dominant in the U.S. music ecosystem.