Southeast Asian String Pedagogy

bibliography of resources and research

This bibliography of resources and research for Southeast Asian String Pedagogy includes both works on indigenous bowed strings as well as works that discuss adapting techniques and repertoire to a European instrumental context.

There are sections on each of the four typical European strings (violin, viola, cello, bass) common in Ero-American styled ensembles followed by two General sections: one for strings and one for ensembles and orchestras. A sheet music resource will be added in the future, or may be included on a different page depending on length of list.

Notes about format:

  1. Works are listed in chronological order in each section with undated items listed last. That may change as the list grows longer.
  2. The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be listed at the end of references as is typical, but also included are three links numbered “1,” “2,” and “3” in parentheses following the DOI. These three items are for the convenience of interested parties who may not have access to an academic database and will reference online sources where authors of pieces have made their work available for download. “LINK 1” will include links only while “LINK 2” will include links only. “LINK 3” will reference other online resources hosting the article such as the author’s website or university page.
  3. Thai and Malay names are generally ordered by given name first and then surname. This bibliography will follow that convention.


Ng Kea Chye, Gerald. (2016). “Violin in Ensemble for Dance: Improvisatory Styles in the ‘Adopted’ Malay Dances of Zapin. Studia Instrumentorum Musicae Popularis IV (New Series).” Edited by Gisa Jähnichen. Münster: MV-Wissenschaft, 217-224. (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Chavalit Chaingam and Kritsakorn Onlamul. (2018). “Implementing Isan Folk Music for Practicing Violin Performance Skill Based on Suzuki Method Concept.” | “แบบฝึกไวโอลินโดยใช้เพลงพื้นบ้านอีสาน ตามแนวคิดของซูซูกิ”. Humanities and Social Sciences Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University|มนุษยศาสตร์และสังคมศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏอุบลราชธานี, 9 (1), 156-66. 

Sreewan Wathawathana and Panya Rungraung. (2019). “A study of Lanna’s fiddle music for creating the new piece for violin ensemble.” | “การศึกษาเพลงพื้นบ้านสะล้อล้านนาสู่การสร้างสรรค์บทเพลง violin ensemble.” Academic Journal of Bangkok Thonburi University | วารสารวิชาการ มหาวิทยาลัยกรุงเทพธนบุรี, 8(1), January – June, 120-131.

Irving, David R. M. (2020). “Strings across the ocean: practices, traditions, and histories of the Cocos Malay biola in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean.” Ethnomusicology Forum, May 7, 28(3), 283-320. DOI 10.1080/17411912.2020.1754874 (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)



Juckrit Charoensook. (2015). “A Design for a National Music Examination Board in Thailand, with Particular Reference to Viola.” University of Northern Colorado, Doctoral Dissertation.

Ayderova, Violetta and Colleen Wong. (2017). “Approaches to Cultural Sustainability through Creating Études/Studies based on Malay Children’s Folk Songs Used in Beginner’s Viola Method Book,” Conference MPAC 22, 365. (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Ayderova, Violetta, and Wong Huey Yi and Colleen Wong. (2017). “Educational Material using Malay Children’s Folk Songs for Viola Beginners,” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 7(11), pages 265-280, November. DOI 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3457 (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Ayderova, Violetta and Karen Lonsdale and Mohd Majid. (2017). “Incorporating the Viola into Performances of New Arrangements of Malay Asli Music for a Western Classical Ensemble.” Proceedings of the 1st Lombok Edu-Tourism Conference. (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)



Kurniadi, Dwi. (2002). “Teknik Improvisasi Cello Pada Musik Keroncong.” (Cello Improvisation Technique in Keroncong Music), Universitas Negeri Jakarta (Jakarta State University). 

Silpayamanant, Jon (2012) “Indonesia Cello and Kroncong Ensembles.” Mae Mai. November 20. 

Silpayamanant, Jon (2013) “Sunday Spotlight on the Non-Western Cello: Indonesian Keroncong Cellos.” Mae Mai. March 31. 

Jennings, Linda (2014) “Development of Cello Performance and Pedagogy in Thailand” (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)





Volk, Terese M. (1995). “Adding World Musics to Your String Program Part 1: Chinese Folk and Thai Classical Music.” American String Teacher, 45(3), 65–69. DOI 10.1177/000313139504500315 (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Holmes, Ramona and Terese M. Volk. (2001). “World on a String: A Sampling of String Traditions from Around the World for String Orchestra.” Alfred Publishing.

Volk, Terese M. (2006). “An application of Thai music for general and instrumental music programs.” International Journal of Music Education, 24(3), 243–254. DOI 10.1177/0255761406069660 (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Yothin Phohkaet (2017). “The Study of Knowledge about String I-san Folk Music.” Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, Vol. 6, NRRU special issue.

Jess (2018). “Asian Violin Practices.” Superprof. September 19. 



Ayerdova, Violetta and Yen Lin Goh and Karen Lonsdale and  Pauzi Majid (2016) “Collaborating with Music Arrangers Towards Creating New Asli Music Scores for Flute, Viola, Piano and Traditional Drums.” (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Wannapha Yannavut. (2016). “An exploration of Thai traditional music for Western percussion instruments.” University of Iowa, Doctoral Dissertation. 

Ayderova, Violetta and Karen Lonsdale and Yen Lin Goh and Mohd Majid. (2017). “Exploring the Malay Traditional Genre ‘Zapin’ as Educational Material for a Western Classical Ensemble (Flute, Viola, Piano).”  Asia-Pacific Symposium for Music Education Research proceedings (APSMER2017), Hatten Hotel, Melaka, Malaysia. (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Sanjaya, Singgih. (2018). “New Composition Concept for Keroncong Music in the Oboe Concerto with Keroncong and Orchestra.” International Journal of Creative and Arts Studies. 5. 75-85. DOI 10.24821/ijcas.v5i2.2413. (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Fidya, Astuti & Rintik Pasha, and Kun Astuti. (2019). “Efforts to Improve the Ability Technique Play Music Keroncong Uses the Drill Method in Extracurricular in SMAN 1 Pemalang.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Art and Arts Education (ICAAE 2018). DOI 10.2991/icaae-18.2019.8 (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Ayderova, Violetta and Colleen Wong and Christine Augustine and Suflan Arshad. (2020). “Learning Ornament Signs through Transcriptions of Malaysian Folk Songs in an Applied Music Course.” 2222-6990. DOI 10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i5/7209 (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)

Ayerdova, Violetta and Yen Lin Goh and Pauzi Majid and Karen Londsdale and Colleen Wang (nd) “Sourcing and Preserving Malay Asli Music Through the Development of a Book of Music Scores of Arrangements for Small Ensembles, with an Accompanying CD.” (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)



Tepika Rodsakan and Bussakorn Binson. (2014). “The Creation of an Integrated Set of Musical Instruments for Mentally Disabled Children.” Journal of Urban Cultural Research, 9, July – December, 68-77. DOI 10.14456/jucr.2014.7 (LINK 1; LINK 2; LINK 3)



Bilby, Sarah. (nd). SOAS Music Department: Lessons for Schools: 4 Java. Retrieved July 30, 2020, from

Gray, Nik. (nd). SOAS Music Department: Lessons for Schools: 3 Bali. Retrieved July 30, 2020, from

Jutamas Poprasit. (nd). SOAS Music Department: Lessons for Schools: 5 Thailand. Retrieved July 30, 2020, from


Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education Series

Diversity, Inclusive Programming, and Music Education is a series of pieces exploring how large concentrated populations of ethnic minorities in the United States create alternative music ecosystems. The series will look at different historical music ecosystems either adapted to by creating a hybridized music identity or assimilated into the dominant Eurocentric music ecosystem.


Near Eastern & Middle Eastern Scores and Sheet Music Resource

Over the years I’ve regularly played in or worked with Near Eastern or Middle Eastern Groups, musicians from those regions, in fusion groups which often perform music from these regions. Often, I’ve learned the tunes by ear from recordings or musicians, but sometimes having sheet music can be useful.  Here are some online and print resources that I have used in the past or which can be useful to someone new to music from these regions.


An Indonesian luthier working on a Keroncong Cello. Note there are only three pegs.

Sunday Spotlight on the Non-Western Cello

An old blog series which focused on a different cello or cello-like instrumental tradition from around the world, and in many cases, stringed instruments traditions that function in a similar role as the cello that have existed in come cases for centuries. The aim of this series was to focus on those traditions, the ensembles these instruments are often played in, and the variations in types and shapes of the instruments.