Q. What Killed the Big Bands? A. The Cost Disease!
I love going to thrift stores and flea markets. Mainly it’s the thrill of potentially finding something I might actually be looking for, but more often than not it’s the thrill if finding something I was never looking for. In this case I found a book by Earl Wilson from 1971 called “The Show Business Nobody Knows.”
What sold me on this book was Chapter 7, “What Killed the Big Bands?” The opening paragraphs from the chapter states:
Why are they no more, those sweet, sentimental, danceable, romantic big bands of yesterday–the Tommy Dorseys, Jimmy Dorseys, and Glenn Millers we used to know? The answer is simple.
The singers–the crooners–left the bands to go out on their own and make their fortunes. Then came the rock groups, and recording companies developed more of them.
:They were easier to promote and less expensive to record,” says Willard Alexander, the agent and entrepreneur who booked the biggest name bands for many years.
“They blossomed into big money because it cost so much less to record three or four voices.”
As I mentioned in my post, The Pop Music Industry and the Cost Disease, Larry DeBoer in his piece, “Is rock ‘n’ roll a symptom of baumol’s disease?” (1985), states:
It was one factor accounting for the shift in the dominant form of US popular music from big band swing in the 1930s and 1940s to rock ‘n’ roll in the 1950s. Baumol’s disease made the smaller band a necessity, although cultural forces determined the music’s content. The recording industry responded to these cost pressures by concentrating on rock ‘n’ roll music.
and sure, the fact that the Dorseys and Glenn Miller died (or was presumed dead) as well as the mass of musicians who left for the war were surely a contributing factor to the loss of the big band, in the end the popular music industry responded to the economic factors and cut their costs accordingly by focusing on the smaller four piece Rock ‘n’ Roll bands which became the dominant pop cultural force in music for the post WWII youth cohorts.
In the end, it was just getting far too expensive for big bands to be the predominant form of popular entertainment.
When Pop Music and Jazz Were One and the Same
Big bands existed in an era when pop music and jazz were one and the same and many of the artists during that time recorded with a big band backing them. While I was touring with multi-Grammy award winner and Country Music legend, Ray Price, the chief (as we often called him) had increasingly experimented with what was known as the Nashville Sound replacing the Honky Tonk of the 40s and early 50s. This called for string accompaniment and big band brass and for a time he would tour around with a 15 piece string orchestra.
The following video collage, from when I played in his string section, was from a show we did at the Ryman Auditorium (the former Grand Ol’ Opry) in April of 2008:
That was a special show and we rarely used those forces and the extra strings. During the three years I toured intermittently with the chief, the string section was composed more austerely of fiddle, three violins, one (or two) viola(s) and one cello. It is just too prohibitively expensive to have the full string and brass/wind backing band.
There’s nothing particularly special about Popular Music as compared to Art Music economically speaking. It is just as prone to the Cost Disease as any other performing organization. The response to market forces might be a bit swifter, and the utilization of emerging Broadcast Media as one integral part of audience building might have helped to build the house of popular music cards, but as they labels start to fail and as traditional broadcast media become less and less relevant we’ll start seeing the same long tern structural issues in popular entertainment as we see in arts organizations.
That is unless some new infrastructural model can be constructed to prolong the slow demise of the popular entertainment industry. It’s just too bad that the classical music industry is just now starting to adopt many of the old structures used by the pop industries–it just means that again, arts organizations will be behind the curve.
DeBoer, L. (1985) “Is rock ‘n’ roll a symptom of baumol’s disease?” Journal of Cultural Economics. 9(2): 48-59. doi: 10.1007/BF00187744
Wilson, E. (1971) “The Show Business Nobody Knows” Chicago:Cowles Book Company, Inc.